Each language comes with it's own 'best practices', little idiosyncrasies and conventions that are unique, and so I'll try to present the following points that I've picked up for Ruby. Pardon me when I litter my subject headings with the 'right way' of doing things, it just means it's the conventional practice usually adopted by Ruby programmers.
The '?' or '!' behind the names of methods
They are both just a language convention. For the question mark, it is normally only for calls that return
'false'. For the exclamation mark, it is used to mark that the method modifies
'self', rather modifying a copy while leaving the original unchanged.
It's helpful to note that having the punctuations behind the method names has no other significance besides that, something which is helpful to starters, especially if one is actually looking for an operational difference where there is none.
How do I know what class an object belongs to?
object.class == Class
This applies only to Ruby being a full object oriented language. Perl does have OOP glued onto it, but seems quite ill-conceived that I hardly use it compared to the usual quick and dirty un-OOP that I'm used to.
The difference between the
'kind_of?'is that the former only matches the exact class, where
kind_of?(probably) matches ancestor and descendant classes. I guess that's similar to the
'instanceof'keyword that I'm rather familiar in Java.
The right way for checking if a variable is defined
if defined? variable
puts "right way of checking variable is defined"
Where I've originally have been checking for 'defined-ness' by comparing to
if variable == nil
puts "wrong way of checking variable is defined"
The right way for checking for array emptiness or non-emptyness
Rather than using
arr.size == 0or
arr.size != 0, the two methods in ruby is
arr.any?. A comparison that checks the presence of an array is not a valid comparison for emptiness, i.e:
if  then
puts "not the right way to check emptiness"
The above code is incorrect, because it will always return true as it checks for an array being defined, which is always true (for an empty array), rather than checking for the length of the array being zero.
Class loading mechanism in Ruby
If you needed to load a class definition dynamically, usually by passing the string of the class at Runtime, in Java the facility is:
Class c = System.getSystemClassLoader().loadClass("String");
The equivalent in doing this for Ruby:
s = Object.const_get("String");